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It is true that we are free in the sense that we are not slaves, japansse we are not free in the sense that we are involved in the market economy. The more the market economy develops, the less we can get rid of it.
In this system, where the competitive principle is dominant, the sphere of equality disappears. Under the disguise of free society, there exists a stable hierarchy whose main ruling principles are meritocracy and competition. Then the most essential problem in our democracy would be to ask how the non-free and unequal people could be active as citizens and feel free and equal in this hierarchical society.
So in order to guarantee free discussions, the freedom itself must be guaranteed first of all. In other words, a new polis must be established where people can feel free and equal actually. Only rulers and power holders can decide what is public according to their interests. On the contrary, the polis as the space for democracy should be pursued and established consciously, as there is no clear borderline between the political sphere as the realm of freedom and the private as that of necessity in the present society which is under the control of the market economy.
For them the pubic means the realm which they want to put under control. But for most of the people who must live on, whatever they do for their lives, all their activities are closely connected with each other. Therefore the public cannot be separated from the private. Is clitoridectomy a public tradition or a private one? Whether a young girl can accept this hideous tradition as a private decision or not is very complicated. Even if she does not want it, it would be very difficult to deny it.
In case she rejects it, she may be excommunicated from her village and unable to marry. Then she may pretend to be willing to accept it. Can there be a free decision or free speech in such a situation? Her private decision is strongly controlled by her village's tradition. So long as she wants or must stay in her village, there will be no real possibility to reject it in so many cases. Only when we put aside our interests, can free discussion begin.
Judging from the situations of most women, there have been no sufficient conditions for free speech except in very private conversations among themselves.
If they say "No", then they will be excluded. If they say "Yes", the result will be very horrible. What should they do in such a situation? This is a very important question.
What should not be overlooked, however, is the fact that this attitude is not restricted only to women, but extends to much of the population who cannot be free in their lives. In the present situation, where the competitive principle prevails in the work places and so the danger fhat losing one's post awaits, freedom and equality is not reality, but only a formal principle. Then the first precondition of democracy itself is not secure, but in danger.
In the present Japanese situation, the public sphere is not public, but the outcome of power struggles beneath the public sphere.
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But even if there is a consensus regarding economic interests, the precondition of free chxt on political problems is not fulfilled yet. If the ideas of the oppositional group are paid attention to, then the minority group could remain part of the society even if the majority rules. Of course under the disguise of harmony, the oppression of alternative opinions can always happen. Harmony is often used to justify control and oppression.
We must be very careful in using the word "harmony" or "consensus" lest we should glorify dictatorships, such as in the formerly socialist countries. The word "harmony" may conceal the oppression japabese alternative opinions when it is addressed from the rulers; yet it is worth considering as a means for communication, when it has been passed on from generation to generation among the general populace.
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The reason why these kinds of devices have been invented in Japan might not be so simple. It may due to the following: Japan is a small country isolated from other countries. As a result, when a serious struggle or difference of opinions occurs within one community, it is not easy for the minority group to get out of the community or the country.
Even if the group cannot be content with what the majority decides, they often have to remain in the society as before. Then the best way to avoid potential disagreement wirh be to try to take the opposition's view into. Let me give one interesting example reported in an amazing book The Forgotten Japanese, by Tsuneichi Miyamoto. This book is very ificant, because since the end of World War II most of our democracy-oriented scholars and intellectuals have been apt to consider all kinds of traditional ways of thinking or life as feudal or patriarchal.
As a result, they were unwilling to find democratic elements in our past culture. Although their ideological intentions were towards democracy, it never meant that they actually tried to find democratic traditions in the lives of the Japanese common people. To the contrary, they often imported the Western notion of democracy, especially after the French Revolution. Naturally this kind of democracy is uapanese suited for those who are independent and free citizens, such as gentry, small landowners, and the bourgeoisie.
It is not surprising that this kind of democracy could not easily take root among the Japanese population more broadly. Consequently, intellectuals frequently complained of the backwardness of the Japanese way of communication. To be sure, we should not underestimate the negative influence of the traditional ruler's ideology. It is entirely anti-democratic and japanfse ideology always watches for a revival in a renewed form.
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They thought of the modern West as democratic and the indigenous tradition as anti-democratic. But the more fundamental alternative would be that of democracy between the governmental form and the way of reaching consensus among people. Miyamoto clearly announced what is the "forgotten". The "forgotten" refers to what has japanexe neglected in the process of Westernization or under japaneae name of "progress".
When a problem is raised and becomes a matter withh controversy, what is considered most important is to discuss the matter long enough that all members feel that they have expressed their opinions fully. Consequently, it was not out of the ordinary for it to take several days to come to a consensus about one problem. Even if one theme is raised, when it may be contestable, the direct conflict is carefully avoided.
In addition to avoiding useless hostility, should some counterargument be raised, the chairperson diverts the argument from antagonism and changes the topic. After the members "chat" without any apparently focused theme for so long, they return to the first theme. If there nevertheless remains some possibility of disagreement, then the same process will be repeated until all come to feel that it is time for a consensus.
First, the main goal of the discussion is not focused on finding the truth, so that logical consistency does not play any essential role.
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In the above-mentioned cases, the members are not always required to stay in the meeting room. If some of them need to go home, they can leave their seats and can have the opportunity to consider the opposite opinion calmly. They think it as a matter of course that the issue cannot be treated and decided from the criterion of logical consistency. Not the discussion in search of the truth, but the conversation for japanesw communication is the main concern. Therefore the "chat" zatsudan itself is more important.
Only after a long time for careful and deliberate communication could the chairman propose the final decision.
Various kinds of anecdotes must have played an essential role as the main method for communication. In other words, when one talks in connection with what one has experienced, then the other members can understand him more clearly and it is easier for the speaker himself. Even during the conversation, it was necessary to put in time for intermission so that all the members can ponder calmly. Moreover in cases where opinions were left undecided, the time for careful consideration was regarded as a necessary condition to reach a consensus.
Then no one in the village would feel that his opinion was neglected. This made the communication within a small village very smooth. At the same time, this kind of process gave authority to the meeting.
If some other ideas emerge from the conversation or chat, they can tell others what they think. Then it is important that they should speak in connection with what they have experienced. This ensures that most people express their opinions even if cuat are not well educated.
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Besides, as these opinions are rooted in their own experience, others want to listen japanesd them. If an opinion is expressed only as a result of abstract reasoning, it would not always be necessary to listen to it, because then it would not be the speaker's opinion based on his own experiences, but only the result of logical reasoning.
When it matters whose opinion is the most consistent and logical, most of common people will stop expressing their opinion and follow what the most intellectual japxnese asserts. Then it will not be the place topos for mutual communication based on equality and freedom, but for hierarchical rule. First, mutual communication is the most important objective for the meeting. A political decision can be made only after the members have had enough mutual exchange of opinions without deciding which opinion is the best.
Second, it is especially important that the members can talk about anything that they found to be related to the theme. Much attention is paid to the contributions of the members who speak based on their own experiences. This makes it possible that all the opinions can be respected as the unique expression of one's life experience. This is necessary to avoid useless conflicts among the members who are present in the same meeting.
It is natural that no one wants his opinion to be neglected or refuted in the meeting. So the best way to reach the agreement is that everyone's opinion should be respected as unique, as it is rooted in one's own experience. And it is true that each one's opinion has something unique when it is spoken chst one's experience. Hidetoshi Kato:.